Primary School Maths Curriculum [A Simple Guide for Parents]

The official primary school maths curriculum is dense, long and hard to read. I’ve simplified and narrowed down the primary maths curriculum for you. Understanding this will help you to improve your ability to help your child understand maths in primary school.

Every child in a class has a unique style of learning information. So, the Department of Education has developed a constructive approach to the primary school curriculum for children where they can link between existing and new knowledge. 

For more help, click this link to know more about what our maths tutors will be covering in our 5th and 6th class grinds.

How Many Levels Does Primary School Curriculum Have?

 The primary school curriculum has 7 levels.

According to their age, compatibility and intellectual primary school students are divided into several levels.

What are those levels?

Let’s have a look at the chart.

Age (Years) Level
4-5Junior Infant Class
5-6Senior Infant Class
6-7First Class
7-8Second Class
8-9Third Class
9-10Fourth Class
10-11Fifth Class
11-12Sixth Class

Okay, let’s delve into the maths curriculum.

Topics/Strands for Primary School Maths 

I’ll start explaining the curriculum from the junior infants and gradually move to the older classes.

Maths Curriculum For Junior Infants & Senior Infants

In skill development, primary school offers several strands to accelerate their problem-solving, reasoning and understanding skills.

The Department of Education has also implemented early mathematical activities for junior infants to plant the seeds of maths in their brains. The child will learn through games in the classroom.

Ultimately, the curriculum is set up so that you, as a parent, won’t have to take extra pressure to teach your child basic maths. Also, the pupils will learn how to apply logical reasoning and interpret data with the help of class lessons. 

For junior infant and senior infant classes, the strands and units are –

Early mathematical practices (only for junior infants)● Classifying 
● Matching 
● Ordering
● Comparing
Algebra● Extending patterns
Number● Comparing, ordering
● Number analysis
● Counting 
● Numeration
Measures● Length
● Weight
● Money
● Time
● Capacity
Space and shape● 2-D and 3-D shapes
● Spatial awareness
Data● Interpreting and identifying data

The early mathematical activities strand is only for junior infants. This chart will clarify what the teachers have to offer to your children. 

For junior and senior infant classes, the fundamental objectives are selecting several objects and processing for next-level mathematical challenges. Your children will justify and classify objects based on logical reasoning.

Let’s dive into it. 

Early Maths Curriculum

Strand Unit/sWhat the students will learn 
(For Junior Infants)
What the students will learn 
(For Senior Infants)
Classifying ● Your child will classify several objects like colour, texture, shape or size.
● The students have to identify a set of complements.
Matching● Identical objects matching and one-to-one response.
● Matching related objects and responding to one-one sessions.
Comparison● According to height, weight, length, quantity, size or thickness, the student will compare several objects. 
● The child will compare a group of matter without counting.
Ordering● Without counting the matters, your child needs to order them in different types of sets. 
● The student will also be eligible to order things based on categories (Length, height).

After developing a sense of early maths activities in the primary curriculum, the curriculum shifts to numbers, algebra, measures, data, shape, and space for junior infants and the corresponding upper classes. 

I’ve clarified how the teachers will provide the lessons to your child for these strands. Now let’s get more in depth into the curriculum.

Strand/ Topic: Numbers

The students will learn counting from 0 to 10 in the junior infant class and 0 to 20 in the senior infant class through rhymes and stories. Additionally, they’ll learn number lines, numbers sets and many more exciting lessons. Primary school maths curriculum for junior and senior infant classes

Strand Unit/sWhat the student will learn
(Junior Infant Class)
What the students will learn
(Senior Infant Class)
Counting● Students will learn to count objects using numbers from 1 to 10.
For instance, the teachers will let them play in a group to count. 
They might learn many stories or rhymes while learning to count.
● Your child will number materials from 0 to 20 in a set. 
For example: There are 20 balls of different colours. The pupils will count each ball from 1 to 20. 
The teachers will inspire and push them to present several arrays or patterns for the same numbers. Also, there will be the exact set counting, but with different materials.
Comparing & Ordering● Arranging numbers from 1 to 5 in order sets. 
● Your child will learn the usage of ordinary numbers, like, first, second, third, etc. 
● Match the number patterns according to the number sets, from 1 to 5.
● From 0 to 10, your child has to compare between sets of equivalent and non-equivalent sets.
● Object arrangement in an order set manner from 0 to 10. 
● Language of ordinal numbers, like, first, second, third, etc.
Number Analysis (Partitioning and Combining)● The pupils will be eligible to determine the number of components. And the range is from 1 to 5. 
● Also, the learning process teaches the students how to combine objects to make the total count of 5. 
● Partitioning sets is another skill to learn in this stage. 
The children will learn to do this with a pencil or a straw to show the parts, 1 to 5.
● Explore components number from 1 to 10. 
● Rearranging object combination and making it 10. 
Teachers play with the students and let them count objects orally. 
● Partition objects from 0 to 10. 
The teachers will repeatedly let the students explore symbols and their meaning. 
Also, they’ll learn the equal sign indicates equivalence, not the answer in the following line. 
● Practice the order numerals from 1 to 10 (read and write).
● Number objects estimation from 2-10.
● Sense of numeral zero and determination of empty set.
● Problem-solving-
○ Pictorial 
○ Oral
Numeration● Proper understanding of 1-5 counting.
● Eligible to write and read from 1 to 5.
● Determining numeral zero alongside empty set
● Counting objects
● Learning the conversation of numbers from 0 to 10. 
● Eligible to read and write from 0 to 10. 
● Gain knowledge of zero and empty sets.

Strand/ Topic: Algebra

Your child will receive abundant knowledge on linking, reinforcing, and progressing with the Number strand knowledge in Algebra. 

Strand Unit/sWhat your child will learn
(Junior Infant Class)
What your child will learn
(Senior Infant Class)
Extending Patterns● Determine the arrangement of shape, size and colour. 
Identification, extending the patterns and copying them.
● Explore 3 to 4 elements’ colour, size, number and shape
● Creating a unique or different array with given numbers
● Re-arranging numbers in patterns, like, finding out the blank box number.

Strand/Topic: Shape & Space 

The students will learn to analyse 2-D and 3-D shapes visually. Also, they’ll describe their playful experiences with objects.

Strand Unit/sWhat the student will learn
(Junior Infant Class)
What the students will learn
(Senior Infant Class)
Spatial Awareness● Learning terms of spatial relations. 
example: On, beside, down, in, etc.
● Learning spatial relations through essential vocabulary.
Example: Below, near, far, etc.
2-D Shapes● Learning the name of shapes
● Use of some pictures to recognise the shape. 
Problem-solving skill
● Learning the vocabulary of 2-D shapes and describing them. Example: Rectangle, triangle, circle, etc. 
● Make larger or different shapes with the help of 2-D shapes. 
● Improving ideas about 2-D shapes and solving problems
● Eligible to provide simple directions, like, moving and turning
3-D Shapes● Meaningful and logical discussion on 3-D shapes.
● Developing problem-solving sense and skills.
● Introduction to different 3-D shapes and learn the names, for instance, cuboid, square, sphere, cube, etc.
● Creating several shapes with 3-D shape combinations. 
● Developing problem-solving skills regarding shapes.

Strand: Measures 

The objective of learning measures is to understand units, estimate, and record length with proper instruments, and units.

Strand Unit/sWhat the student will learn
(Junior Infant Class)
What the students will learn
(Senior Infant Class)
Length● Comparing objects of different heights and length.
● Learning essential vocabulary to understand length concepts, for example, long/short, wide/narrow, longer, shorter, etc.
● Through learning vocabulary related to length, the students will learn the length concept in-depth by exploring and discussing.
● Non-standard units assumption and length measurement.
For example, how many chocolates can be placed in this box? 
Then, the teacher will take answers from the students and discuss them afterwards.
● Measure width, length or height by determining and using correct units (Non-standard). The students will have to answer with appropriate reasoning why he has chosen the particular answer. 
Example: How can you find out the width of a door or a window? Which unit should be used?
Weight● Learning vocabulary with conceptual meaning. 
Example- Heavy, light, balance, etc.
● Comparing weight through several objects
● Learn vocabulary of weight through exploring objects.
● Comparing object sets of several sizes, shapes and weights. Your child has to assume the answer by handling the objects. 
● Weight estimation with non-standard units. 
Example: How many oranges will fit in this bowl? 
● The students have to choose units to weigh objects. Also, the students have to provide their reason of choice.
Capacity● Concept of capacity.
● Comparison among containers according to capacity.
● Understanding the concept of capacity through learning vocabulary. 
● Compare – Two different containers of different capacities. 
● Capacity estimation and measurement of non-standard units. 
Example: How many bottles of water will fill this bucket?
● Selection of appropriate units to develop the skill of measuring capacity. The students will have to provide valid reasons for their answers. Then, the teachers will discuss the topic and provide appropriate ideas on measuring capacity correctly. 
Example: How will you measure the capacity of this bucket?
Time● Learning vocabulary related to time.
For example, morning, night, bedtime, early, evening, weekends, etc. 
Daily life events sequencing
● Understand the vocabulary and the concept of time.
Example: Yesterday, today, not yet, soon, etc. 
● Develop the vocabulary concept by putting them in a sequence of daily activities, like discussing the significant times of your child’s day. 
● Practising how to read time.
Money● Introduction to coins.
● Learning the use of minimum 1 to 5 cents, implementing vocabulary.
● Developing the sense of problem-solving and implementation in the real-life.
● Eligible to identify coins up to 20p and learn how to use coins at least from 1p to 10p.
● Correctly use vocabulary: Cost, price, cheap, change, etc. 
● Practical money using knowledge and improving problem-solving skills.
Example: How many items can be bought with the coins? 
How will you spend the given money in two different ways?

Strand: Data

They’ll learn how to identify data based on specific criteria. Also, the students will interpret data with proper reasoning and arrange them in columns and rows.

Strand Unit/sWhat the student will learn
(Junior Infant Class)
What the students will learn
(Senior Infant Class)
Recognising and data interpreting● Identification of a specific type of object.
● Use of models to recognise, interpret easy mathematical data.
● Equal, unequal matching.
● Classifying objects based on one or two criteria, for example, with or without wheels, yellow or not yellow, etc.
Two criteria for sorting out, for example, red toys without wheels.
● Interpreting and justifying data in two columns or rows based on models, objects or pictures.
The students have to discuss and compare the outcomes of maths. 
Example: Teachers have provided two different pets or a model of a pet. These pictures are arranged in columns or rows. 
Now, the students/pupils will discuss, and compare the results, and interpret the necessity of a common baseline.

That’s all for the junior and senior infant maths curriculum. Now, let’s move on to the next section – First & second Class.

Maths Curriculum for First & Second Class

For the first and second class students, the curriculum is more extended than the junior and senior infants. So, the strands look like this:

Number● Counting and numeration 
● Comparing and ordering 
● Place value
● Fractions 
● Operations
Algebra● Exploring and using patterns
Shape and space● Spatial awareness 
● 2-D shapes 
● 3-D shapes
● Angles 
● Symmetry 
● Length 
● Area 
● Weight 
● Capacity 
● Time 
● Money
Data● Interpreting and representing data
Measures● Length 
● Area 
● Weight 
● Capacity 
● Time 
● Money

Initially, the pupils/students of the first class will learn proper reasoning. Their units will be focused on understanding and implementing the knowledge. 

Let’s know more details about each strand’s unit. 

Strand: Numbers

The students will learn counting from 0 to 199. Also, they’ll learn to use the calendar, different symbols of maths, number stories and sentences. And the pupil will get introduced with addition, subtraction.

Strand Unit/sWhat the pupils will learn (First Class)What the pupils will learn
(Second Class)
Numeration, counting● Count objects from a set. 
This is a fun experience for the students because teachers guide them through exciting games. They’ll enjoy the process of recounting or rearranging objects while counting, but the total number won’t change. 
● From 0-99, the pupils will learn to order numerals alongside reading and writing. 
● Your child will estimate the object’s number of a set. The set’s object number will be between 0 to 20.  
● Number counting from a set of objects. 
● Eligible to count, read and write from 0 to 199. 
● The teachers will ask the students to assume the number in a set of 0 to 20 to let them practice previous counting knowledge.
Ordering and comparing● Compare: Equivalent and non-equivalent sets, from 0 to 20. 
● Order: Object sets.
● Learning ordinal number language from first to tenth.
While learning the language, the pupils will be guided to describe several patterns. Also, the teachers will make the pupils practise the implementation of ordering and comparing number sets knowledge.
The pupils will describe several patterns using their lesson from the previous class.
● Learning how to use ‘ < > , = ‘ signs to differentiate equivalent and non-equivalent numbers. 
● Learning how to use a calendar.
Place value● Learning from 0 to 99 in groups using cubes, lollipop sticks, coins and counters.● Place value from 0 to 99 and identify, explore.
Understanding the basics of combining and partitioning different sets. They’ve to practise addition from 0 to 20 numerical numbers. 
Different combinations of number sets to make up the assigned number: 
5 + 5 = 10, 7 + 3 = 10 
● Introduction to –
1. Zero property:
[ 5 + 0 = 5]
2. Associative property: 
[ (10 + 5) + 5] = 20
[ (8 + 5) + 7 ] = 20 
3. Commutative property: 
        2 + 3 = 5 ; 3 + 2 = 5
● Improving the basics of addition facts from 1 to 20. 
Make up the total of 10 with a pair of numbers: (6 + 4 = 10)
Which number will complement numbers to 10? 
 (3 + ▢ =10)
These maths will develop the counting of commutative, zero properties. 
● With the help of number stories or number sentences, the pupils will learn to solve maths that involves students in addition exercises within 20. 
● With or without renaming, the pupils will add numbers within 99.
● Repeated addition practising and discussing.
● Introducing subtraction to the children.
● Ensure that they understand the deduction process from 0 to 20. 
Example: I had 10 balls and I gave you 7 balls. How many balls I have left?
Example: You have 10 pencils and Jon has 3. How many more do you have? How many fewer have Jon?
The pupils will learn deduction through complementing. 
Example: There are 7 ribbons in a set. You have 5. How many do you need to collect to fill the set?
● Practising mental methods to subtract from 0 to 20. 
● The pupils will solve number sentences and number stories. 
● Learn to use symbols +, -, =
● Without regrouping, the students will subtract numbers from 0 to 99. 
● One-step problem solving on addition and subtraction. 
Understanding addition while combining sets. 
The students will practise zero properties, commutative and associative addition. Also, they’ll sharpen their mental strategies through additional facts.
● Number stories and sentences constructed between 0 to 99. 
● Using mental strategies, the students will record notation boards, algorithms, number sentences and lines. 
● Discuss the group counting. 
Example: 20 breads in a packet. How many breads in 7 packets?
20+20+20+20+20+20+20 = 140 breads. 
● Improving the previous knowledge of subtraction. 
● Developing mental strategies from 0 to 20. 
● From number sentences, develop problem-solving skills on subtraction. 
● Learning the meaning and use of different symbols used in maths. 
Example: +, -, =, <, > etc.
● Strengthening problem-solving skills. 
Example: One-step or two-step problem-solving.
Fractions● Find out half of any number.● Find out the quarters and halves of number sets to 20.
Extending and Arranging pattern● Your child will recognise a pattern in a set of numbers. The numbers can be odd or even. 
● To be more polished in addition, they will use pattern facts. 
Example: (7+3 = 10, 2+8= 10, 15+5= 20).
● The students will practice the presence of unknown numbers in a frame. 
Example: 5+5 = 10, 8+2= 10.
● Predict subsequent numbers along with recognizing the patterns. 
Exploring different patterns of numbers, like odd and even patterns. 
● Addition practice and exploring. 
● In a frame, the pupils will assume the presence of an unknown number.
Example: 24 + 6 = ▢,
14 +  ▢ = 20.

Strand: Shape & Space 

In this segment, the pupils of first and second class will understand directions to use practically. They’ll learn several objects’ shapes names and design some shapes on their own.

Strand Unit/sWhat the pupils will learn (First Class)What the pupils will learn 
(Second Class)
Spatial awareness● Learning vocabulary: Underneath, on top of, through, left and right, between, right, etc.
● Practising within the school arena in simple directions.
Example: From desk to window, from school hall to classroom, from playground to classroom, etc.
● Learn how to use, explore and discuss spatial relations and the vocabulary.
● Using simple directions, the pupils will learn the school settings. Also, the children will learn half and quarter turns in a specific direction. 
Example: Do a quarter turn, take 4 steps backwards, etc.
2-D shapes● Comparing, describing and using the names of 2-D shapes.
● Drawing different 2-D shapes.
● Recognising and halving 2-D shapes
● The students will learn how to do partition of 2-D shapes.
● Discuss how to use 2-D shapes in real life.
● Describe and compare different shapes.
Example: Square, circle, oval, rectangle, triangle, etc. 
● The pupils will try to draw 2-D shapes. 
● Your child will learn how to combine and do the partition of 2-D shapes.
● Learn to construct the 2-D shapes.
3-D shapes● Naming different shapes and learning to compare and describe – Cylinder, sphere, cube, cuboid, etc. 
● Learning from existing 3-D shapes in the environment – Box, packet, container, etc. 
● Trying to solve problems of 2-D and 3-D shapes. 
● 3-D and 2-D shape relationship exploration.
● Explain, name the shapes of the 3-D design, and compare the objects from one to another. 
Example: Cone, sphere, cylinder, cube, etc.
● Learn through discussion 3-D shapes. 
● Analysis of the relationship between 2-D and 3-D shapes through the teacher’s guidance.
AnglesN/A● Recognize different angles available in the environment. 
Example: 2-D shapes, door handles, etc.
SymmetryN/A● Select the shapes of line symmetry.

Strand: Measures 

The teachers will guide the pupils to use weight vocabularies and record length and area. They’ll be capable of recording the measurements using appropriate units.

Strand Unit/sWhat the students will learn (First class)What the students will learn
(Second Class)
Weight● Use non-standard units, like, heavy-heavier, light-lighter, balance etc.
● Learning how to use measuring instruments along with non-standard units. 
● Simple problem-solving skill strengthened through the estimation, measuring and weight records.
● Measure, estimate weight through non-standard units. 
● Learning the use of non-standard units. 
● Record, measure and compare weight through quarter kilogram and half kilogram.
Length● Estimation, comparison and record length with units. 
● Selecting the right units for measuring. 
● Learning how to apply standard units to measure length.
● Sharpening problem-solving skills.
● Estimation, comparison and record length with units. 
● Choose the appropriate measuring unit.
● Learning how to measure length in meter and centimetre.
AreaN/A● Learning area measurement with non-standard units. 
● How to measure the exact surface with different units.
Capacity● Learning how to use non-standard units, like, pour, fill, empty, etc.
● Selection of correct non-standard units.
● Strengthening problem-solving skills.
● Learning how to use non-standard units to estimate, measure, and compare the diversity of several containers. 
● Selection of the correct non-standard measuring instruments.
● Recording different capacities and developing problem-solving skills. 
Example: Half-litre, quarter-litre, etc.
Money● Learning: Euro values, exchanging euro and coin use.
● Conceptual understanding with simple questions.
Example: How many chocolates can be bought with the 50p.
● How to value and exchange 50cents and assume how many objects can be bought by this sum.
● Recognising £2 value. 
● Learning the conversion of pence, cents to pounds.
Time● Learn vocabulary: Day, months of the year, day before or after, etc.
● How to read the analogue clock in detail. 
● How to read a calendar using day, date and month.
● Use simple devices to learn reading and recording time.
● How to use time sequence vocabularies. 
● The use of simple devices to record time.
● Introduction to hours, half-hours, and quarter-hours in the analogue clock(12-hour clock).
● Introduction to the digital clock. 
● Calender identification of reading day, month, date.

Strand: Data

In the data section, the pupils will classify a wide range of objects and learn to interpret and represent many types of data by the help of charts, tables and pictograms.

Unit/sWhat the students will learn
(First Class)
What the students will learn
(Second Class)
Data interpreting and representing● Object classifying based on colour, shape, thickness, etc. 
● By using rows, columns, objects, and pictures, the pupils will be representing data.
● Classifying several types of objects. 
● Reading and interpreting pictograms, like, charts and tables.

Maths Curriculum for Third & Fourth Classes

Skill development strands for third and fourth classes-

Numbers● Place value
● Fractions 
● Decimals
● Operations
Algebra● Number patterns and sequences
● Number sentences
Shape and space● 3-D and 2-D shapes
● Lines and angle
● Symmetry
Data● Chance 
● Interpreting and representing data
Measures● Length 
● Area
● Weight 
● Capacity
● Time 
● Money

Let’s know the details of each strand unit. 

Strand: Numbers

The students will learn counting from 0 to 999 in the third class and from 0 to 9999 in the fourth class. Also, they’ll develop the skills in the areas of operations by practising addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

Moreover, there’ll be two new segments – Fractions and decimals. 

Strand Unit/sWhat the students will learn
(Third Class)
What the students will learn
(Fourth Class)
Place Value● Learning from 0 to 999. 
● The students should know the ordering of a three digit number with proper reading and writing knowledge. 
Example: 145 = 1 hundreds + 4 tens + 5 units
● Learning to pick up the round whole number from different given options. 
● The students will find out the place value of decimal numbers.
● Place value identifying in a number, 0 to 9999.
● Developing problem-solving skills with four digit numbers. Also, the students will order, read and write the numbers appropriately. 
● Finding out the nearest number. 
● Place value of decimal numbers.
OperationAddition + Subtraction
● Your child will add or subtract within 999. 
● The students must know the concepts of addition and subtraction clearly.
● Improving maths skills by solving problems. 
● Learning multiplication with repeated addition concepts and practising the vice versa.
4 x 2=8
● Practising different multiplication properties. 
Distributive properties 
9 x 2=(3×4)+(3×2)
Zero properties
7 x 0=0, 5 x 0=0
Commutative properties
5 x 4 = 4 x 5
● Learning multiplication facts within 100. 
2 x 7 = 14
● The students will multiply 2-digit numbers with 1-digit. These numbers will be within 0-10. 
A horizontal representation of multiplication- 

● A vertical representation of multiplication-
26 x 3
Improving problem-solving skills. 
● Learning the concept of division, subtraction and remainders. 
● Practise simple division exercises that have 2-digit numbers to divide by 1-digit number(with or without remainder).
Example: 36 ÷ 3
Addition + Subtraction
● Practising addition and subtraction within 9999. 
● Reviewing the facts of addition and subtraction. 
● Improving the word problem solving skills. 
● The students should understand the repeated addition in the multiplication process. 
● Exploring the commutative, zero and distributive multiplication methods. 
● Within 100, the students should learn multiplication facts. 
● Multiply 3-digit or 2-digit number with 1-digit or 2-digit number.
Example: 23 x 12
● Developing practical problem-solving skills and using calculator to know the estimated result. 
The students will learn to divide a 3-digit number by a 1-digit number.
Example: 612÷6
● To check estimates, the students can take help from a calculator. 
● Improving practical problem solving skills.
● The students must understand the concept of sharing. Also, your child needs to learn that division includes repeated subtraction methods. The result may or may not contain remainders. 
● Division of a 3-digit number by 1-digit number. 
● Check estimates by using a calculator.
● Reviewing division facts within 100. 
● Practical problem-solving.
Fraction● Learning how to determine equivalent denominators. 
● Your child will learn to practise how to compare and place the appropriate denominators and position. 
● The students will learn the relationship between division and fraction
● Find out number and unit fraction. 
Example: ¼ of 32 = ?,
32/4 = ?  . 
● Developing problem-solving skills.
● The students will learn how to identify fractions. They’ll also find out the equivalent denominator forms. 
● Learning to order, compare fractions and the importance of placement of a fraction digit on a number line. 
● The students will calculate multiple fractions of a given number. 
Example:  3/10 of a number= 45. Calculate and find the number.
● The students will find out a number that is a fraction of another number.
● Improving problem-solving skills.
Decimals● Learning to express different decimal forms and tenths. 
● Ordering on the number line. 
● Solving problems.
● Your child will be eligible to explore the tenths and hundredths fractions, including decimal.
● Placement the decimals on number lines. 
● Add and subtract a whole number including decimals. 
● 2-digit decimal number multiplication and division by a single-digit number. 
● Problem-solving skills.

Strand: Algebra 

Your children will be exploring the patterns of numbers and describing sequences. They’ll learn the derivation of word problems from a number line.

Strand Unit/sWhat the students will learn
(Third Class)
What the students will learn
(Fourth Class)
Number patterns and sequences● Exploring different patterns of numbers within 999. 
● Explain the patterns of a given sequence. 
Example: 2, 4, 6, 8
● Memorising number facts.
● Number exploring and recording patterns within 9999. 
● Describe several sequences.
● Using patterns helps in memorising number facts.
Number Sentences● From a number sentence, the students should be eligible to derive word problems. 
Example: 10 + 5 = ◻
Dolly has 10 books and Jolly has 5 books. How many books do they have all together? 
● One-step problem solving skills. 
Example: 300-◻ = 225
● Word problem translation from a number sentence. 
● One-step number sentence translation.
● Problem solving skill development.

Strand: Shape & Space

In this section of the primary school maths curriculum, the pupils will be introduced with symmetry, lines and angles. They’ll be capable of describing the relationship between 2-D and 3-D shapes.

Strand Unit/sWhat the students will learn
(Third Class)
What the students will learn
(Fourth Class)
Symmetry● The students will pick line symmetry from surroundings. 
● 2-D line symmetry creation.
● Line identification from the environment. 
● Find out the type of line symmetry. For example: Horizontal, diagonal or vertical. 
● The students will learn how to complete a missing part of a shape and pattern by using line symmetry.
2-D Shape● Classify many 2-D objects based on shapes and describe them. 
● Compare 2-D object properties. 
● Design 2-D shapes.
● Combine different shapes to build 2-D shapes. 
● The students will find out the importance of 2-D shapes.
● Practise to solve problems related to 2-D shapes.
● Describe 2-D shapes: Parallelogram, pentagon, equilateral, etc. 
● Compare 2-D object properties. 
● Create 2-D shapes. 
● 2-D shape identification from the surroundings. 
● Combine different shapes and build 2-D shapes.
3-D Shapes● Describe and classify different 3-D shapes. 
Example: Sphere, cone, cube, pyramid, etc. 
● Relationship between 3-D and 2-D shapes.
● Design different 3-D shapes. 
● Solve practical problems related to 2-D and 3-D shapes.
● Describe 3-D shapes- Cube, cylinder, sphere, pyramid, etc. 
● Practise exploratory work and discuss. For example: Understand that if a prism is sliced, each slice will have equal size and shape. 
● Relationship of 3-D and 2-D shapes. 
● Design several 3-D shapes.
● Improve solving problems related to 3-D and 2-D shapes.
Line & Angles● Identify and differentiate the types of lines. 
Example: Horizontal lines, vertical lines, etc.
● By rotating, the students will recognise the angle. 
● Introduction with the terms like greater than, less than and equal to in terms of angle definition. 
● Problem-solving skills.
● Define perpendicular and oblique lines. 
● Describe different lines and angles. 
● Practising the terms- less than, greater than and equal to. 
● Improving problem-solving skills.

Strand: Measures

In the new maths curriculum for primary school, the students will learn conversion between two units. Learning mathematical vocabularies is an integral part of it. 

The teachers will guide the pupils to learn the value of money and how to exchange 50p or 50cents.

Strand Unit/sWhat the students will learn
(Third Class)
What the students will learn
(Fourth Class)
Length● Record, measure different types of lengths. 
● Conversion of units. 
Example: 165cm= 1 m 65 cm
● Problems-solving skills development.
● By using suitable instruments, the students will measure several types of lengths. 
● Conversion of units using fraction forms. 
Example: 25 cm =0.25 m =
1/4 m
● Measure perimeter of 2-D shapes. 
● Problem-solving skills improvement.
Area● The students will measure regular or irregular areas by using non-standard square units.● By using standard units, the students will measure areas of different shapes.
Weight● Recording and measuring weight with non-standard units. 
● Choosing correct non-standard units and recording weight data with instruments. 
● Using standard units, the student will estimate weight and develop problem-solving skills.
● Comparing and estimating weight data with non-standard units. 
● Using non-standard data with appropriate instrument selection. 
● The students learn to measure data kilogram, half kilogram and quarter kilogram. 
● Discussing and understanding that different objects’ 1 kg weight aren’t same for different objects. 
Example: 1kg flour, 1 kg sand, etc.
Capacity● Learning different non-standard units and how to apply them.
Example: Pour, fill, holds more, empty, etc. 
● The students will learn how to apply the non-standard units with proper instruments. 
● Recording capacity using standard units and solving problems.
● Estimate capacity with non-standard units. 
● Selecting the appropriate instruments along with the non-standard units to measure weight. 
● Learning to apply different units and estimate capacity with these specific units. 
Example: Litre, half-litre, etc.
Time● Application of sequential vocabulary associated with events.
● Reading the clock and record time with the help of simple devices. 
● 12-hour format clock reading. 
● Reading calendar.
● Learning vocabulary related to time events.
● Recording time with devices.
● Learning the 12-hour format clock and reading time. 
● The students will express the time of a digital clock in hours, half and quarter hours.
● Reading calendar.
Money (Euro)● Learning the value of different coins.
Example: 50p and 50cents.
● The students will learn the calculation of purchasing objects with an assigned sum.
● Exchange and learn how to use £2. 
● The students must learn the value of group coins. 
Example: 235p can be expressed as £2.35.

Strand: Data

The students will create charts, tables to represent and interpret data. Besides, they’ll know how to categorise objects based on colour, thickness and other parameters.

Strand Unit/sWhat the students will learn
(Third Class)
What the students will learn
(Fourth Class)
Representing & Interpreting Data● Classifying objects in two or three criteria. 
Example: Colour, thickness, shape and size. 
● Interpreting and representing data in different columns and proficient use of models, objects and other sources.
● Divide objects in different categories(two or three categories).
● Using any pictogram to represent data. 
● Reading data and representing them in block graphs.

Maths Curriculum Fifth and Sixth Classes 

This is the advanced level curriculum for primary school maths. In the fifth and sixth classes, your children will learn new and exclusive operations that help them to sharpen their intellect. What are the strands? Check out the details.

Number● Place values
● Decimals and percentages
● Number theory
● Fractions 
● Operations
Algebra● Directed numbers
● Rules and properties
● Equations
● Variables
Shape and space● 2-D and 3-D shapes
● Symmetry
● Lines and angle
Data● Representing and interesting data
● Chance
Measures● Length 
● Area
● Weight
● Capacity
● Time 
● Money

Let’s know the details of each unit for fifth and sixth classes-

Strand: Numbers

Your children will sharpen their conceptual knowledge on decimals and fractions. They’ll be practising fractions in more advanced methods.

To be specific, the number theory, multiplication and division segments will open more dimensions for the pupils.

Strand Unit/sWhat the students will learn
(Fifth Class)
What the students will learn
(Sixth Class)
Place Value● The students will be eligible to extend their conceptual knowledge to practically work on ordering decimals and numbers. 
● Learning how to place value using larger numbers, and decimals. 
● Also, the pupils will practice rounding numbers and decimals.
● Practical work on decimals and whole numbers. 
● Sharpening knowledge on place value for decimals and whole numbers. 
● Round decimals.
Operations● By using estimation knowledge, the students will solve problems with a calculator. 
This process includes differences, estimating sums and quotients.
● With or without using a calculator, the students will add or subtract decimals or whole numbers. 
● Multiply decimals with the help of a calculator or estimation skill. 
Example: 8.159 x 8
● Dividing a 3-digit number by a 2-digit number. 
● With a whole number, the students will divide a decimal number. 
Example: 95.5 ÷ 3
● The students should apply estimation strategies including front-end estimation, special numbers, clustering, etc. 
● Whole number or decimal number addition and subtraction. 
● Multiplication of whole numbers and decimal numbers. The student can do the maths with or without the help of a calculator. 
● A 4-digit number should be divided by a 2-digit number(decimal number).
Example: 5625÷25
● The students have to divide a decimal number by a decimal number(with or without a calculator).
Example: 36.92÷4.5
Fractions● Learning the application of equivalent forms of fraction number with denominators( from 2 to 12).
● Presenting improper fractions as equivalent numbers and vice versa. Also, the students will put the numbers in proper number lines. 
● Add or subtract easy mixed numbers or fractions. 
● Whole number multiplication with a fraction number to improve the concepts of objects, paper folding, etc. 
● Learning how to place tenths, hundredths and thousandths for decimal and fractional forms.
● The students will learn to compare fractions and choose the equivalent fraction forms. 
● The improper fraction should be converted to a mixed number or equivalent form. 
● From simple fractions and mixed numbers, the students will include or subtract the fraction numbers. 
● Fraction numbers multiplication. 
● Learning how to present tenths, hundredths or thousandths. 
● How to divide a whole number with a fraction number. 
Example: 15 ÷ ⅓. 
● Introduction to simple ratios. 
Percentages and decimals● Understanding the relationship between percentage and fraction, decimal. 
Example: Find out the percentage of 50%, 20% etc. 
● Comparison between decimals and fractions. Placing these numbers in order.
● Sharpening the problem-solving skill with decimals, fractions, percentages, and whole numbers.
● Using the fractions and decimals to relate with percentages. 
● Comparing percentage numbers. 
● Solving real problems like, profit, discount, increase, decrease, VAT, etc.
Number theory● Choosing composite and simple prime numbers. 
● Explore the rectangular and square numbers. 
● Factor identification and multiplication.
● Composite and prime numbers identification. 
● Identifying square numbers and explore them. 
25 = 5 x 5 = 52
● Find out the simple square roots. 
● Finding out the common factors and multiples. 
● A whole number will be given and the students will write it in exponential form. 
Example: 9 = 3 x 3 x 3 = 33

Strand: Algebra

Algebra will be more exciting for the primary school maths students because they’ll be exploring directed numbers, properties and applying rules in equations.

Strand Unit/sWhat the students will learn
(Fifth Class)
What the students will learn 
(Sixth Class)
Directed Numbers● Learning the positive and negative numbers through discussing sports reports, temperature, calculator displays, etc. 
Example: +7 , -8.
● In a numberline, the students will identify positive and negative numbers. 
● Maths problem-solving in a number line with positive and negative numbers. 
+9 + (-8) =▢
+ 10 + (-4) =▢
Properties and rules● Introduction to the priority in operation and bracket. Also, the students will discuss simple properties along with necessary rules. 
Example: 10 + ( 9+3)=▢
● The students should know the difference between brackets.
Also, why the position of brackets are important in maths. 
Put the problems in a wide range of variations to make the concept clear to the pupils. 
● Learning more about the verbal and symbolic rules. 
Example: 5.0,6.5,8.0, etc.
● Using the previous knowledge of brackets and prioritising operation, they’ll use the calculator to find out the missing operator. 
27 ? (36 ? 11) = 675
● Symbolic rules and number patterns practising and understanding the relationships.
VariablesN/A● Explore different formulas. 
Example: d=r x 2; a= l x w
Equations● The students will be eligible to read word problems and translate into a number sentence.
Example: A man has twelve apples and he takes 1 hour to eat an apple. How many times does he need to eat twelve apples?
12 ÷ 1= ▢
● Your child will solve easy equations. 
Example: 75 – 40 =▢ 
● Eligible to translate number lines from word problems. 
● Enable to do complete easy equations and number sentences. 
8 x 5 = 10 x ▢

Strand: Shape & Space

In this section, the students will be describing 2-D and 3-D shapes. Also, they’ll learn to recognize lines and angles from the environment.

Strand Unit/sWhat the students will learn
(Fifth Class)
What the students will learn
(Sixth Class)
Lines & Angles● Your child will recognize several shapes and lines in the environment. 
● The students will recognize angles based on rotation. 
Example: Straws, 360° protractor, sticks, etc. 
● Use a protractor to measure, estimate and construct angles. 
● How to calculate the sum of a triangle.
● Identifying different shapes from surroundings.
● Understanding angles based on rotation.
● Construct angles along with measuring and estimating in degree units. 
● How to calculate the sum of a quadrilateral.
2-D Shape● Identify circle properties. 
● The students will be given a radius and they’ll draw a circle in this diameter. 
● Learning how to deduct 2-D shapes. 
● Describe: Triangles and quadrilaterals. 
● Explore the line symmetry. 
● Develop problem-solving skills.
● Deduct 2-D shapes
● Describe: Triangles and quadrilaterals. 
● Circle properties identification. 
● Draw a circle in a given radius. 
● Learning tessellation.
● Line symmetry with 2-D shapes. 
● Improving problem-solving skills. 
3-D Shapes● Understanding 3-D shapes and tetrahedra. 
● Constructing 3-D shapes.
● Learning octahedron.
● Draw several 3-D shapes.

Strand: Measures

For the fifth and sixth class, pupils will use more units and simple instruments to measure length, area, time, weight.

Strand Unit/sWhat the pupils will learn
(Fifth Class)
Length● How to use measurement instruments, like, ruler, metre stick, trundle wheel, etc. 
● Using the right measuring units. 
Example: mm for shorter distance, cm for longer objects, m short distance and km for long distance.
● Perimeter measurement of several shapes(regular and irregular).
● Choosing the appropriate measurement instrument. 
● Conversion of different units and renaming the measured length. 
222m = 222÷1000
             = 0.222 km.
● Measuring different shapes. 
● How to use scales on maps.
Area● The students will discover the formula of a rectangle’s area. 
● Area discovery of different 2-D shapes. 
● Using different units, like, centimetre and metre to calculate area.
● The students will understand that only the length of a rectangle can’t determine area. 
● Calculate area of several 2-D shapes. 
● Calculating area of 3-D shapes. 
● Learning how to use new units while measuring fields, playgrounds. 
Example: Acres and hectares. 
● Learning the relationship between square centimetres and square metres. 
● From a scale plan, you’ve to find out the room area.
Weight● To use the right measurement instruments. 
● Use proper metric units to measure weight.
● Use of appropriate weight measurement instruments. 
● Conversion of weight in different units and renaming the measured weight. 
Example: 750g=0.75kg
Capacity● Learning to use capacity measurement units appropriately. 
● Metric units.
● Use the right capacity units to measure.
● Conversion from one unit to another and renaming the measured capacity. 
Example: 825ml= 0.825l
● Measuring a cuboid’s volume.
Time● Use of 24-hour clock in both digital and analogue systems. 
● Converting the time in two formats- 12-hour and 24-hour.
● How to read the international time zone. 
● Relationship among time, average speed and distance.
Money (Euro)● Unitary method.● Exploring different money values. 
● How to convert forging currencies.

Strand: Data

The students will use tables, charts and pictograms to categories and interpret data. To add, they’ll combine data from possible resources and estimate possible results from a range of 0 to 100%.

Strand Unit/sWhat the students will learn
(Fifth Class)
What the students will learn
(Sixth Class)
Data representation and interpretation ● Using pictograms, charts, bars, pie charts to represent and interpret data. 
● Properly reading the data in bars, charts, tables. 
● Learning to calculate the average of any data set.
● Compile different data.
● Problem-solving skill improvement.
● Using trend graphs, pie charts to present data. 
● Learning to read and interpret data from multiple sources, like, trend graphs, pie charts. 
● Compiling data sets.
● Average calculation. 
● Developing problem-solving skills.
Chance● Find out the outcomes of simple maths.
● Identify the chances of an event occurring.
● Using different data resources, like, data, chart, table, etc.
● Creating a list to identify the possible results. 
● Rate the possibilities of occurring an event on a scale of 0 to 1 and 0 to 100%. 
● Learning the construction of a chart and table to get data.

Assessment of Primary School Maths Curriculum

Primary school maths is assessed on a continuos basis. Students will participate more in  assignments, and group work to obtain good grades. 

Let’s check the assessment methods the Department has designed for the pupils:

  • Oral tests will help a pupil revise the important sections of a lesson. 
  • Based on numerical competence, the students will take written tests. 
  • They’ll be solving problems on several topics the teachers have covered in the class so far. 
  • The students will do fun projects. Crucially, they’ll need to collect data, and design a model based on the data using the previous knowledge. 

Assessment Report

The report of assessment of a student has a unique format from class to class. So, this report is sent to the parents. 

You can check the results and the year-round activities in maths of your child. It’s a part of communicating with the parents from the school and knowing their feedback. 

This is a portfolio of your child. The assessment report doesn’t only indicate the numerical values the pupil has achieved. It’s beyond that. 

Because as a parent, you’ll know the strengths and weaknesses your child has. You’ll be discussing the assesments and class curriculum with them to see the improvement. 

Pupil Profile Card

It’s a way to record a student’s development throughout the school year. Teachers provide suggestions, advice and instructions for the students’ overall improvement. 

Also, the results of class tests, teacher-designed tests and other activities will be present to observe. So, the parents are getting the correct information from the school. 

Final words

The primary school maths curriculum is a wonderful way to develop the sense of maths in a child. As a parent, you’ll understand how they’ve structured the curriculum and the education system won’t pressure a child to learn maths in school. 

From junior level infants to sixth class, students will learn things little by little. They’ll grow a sense of a topic in a class, practice with the teachers, and do lots of exciting group work like playing intense games.

In the next class, the same topic will have more lessons for the students to explore. So, it’s a systematic process for a pupil to indulge themself and grow within.

If you have any questions about the syllabus or primary maths classes feel free to contact T.J

TJ— CEO of Breakthrough Maths.

Need help in Maths? Contact the Breakthrough Maths team here.

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